The Nagorno Karabagh Republic is a sovereign, democratic, secular, legal and social state, where power belongs to the people. The state power system in the Republic is based on the principles of separation and balance of legislative, executive and judicial powers, as well as on the distribution of the powers between republican and local authorities.
The head of state is the President who is elected for a five-year term. One and the same person cannot hold the post of the President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic for more than two terms running.
The President of the Republic oversees the adherence to the Constitution, ensures normal functioning of the legislative, executive and judicial bodies.
He is the guarantor of sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and security of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic.
The President represents the Republic in international relations, defines the general course of the NKR's foreign policy.
He is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed force, coordinates the activities of the state organs in the defence sphere, appoints and releases supreme command staff of the Army and other forces.
The President forms and presides at the National Security Council.
The Head of State grants citizenship of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic and political asylum in the Republic.
The President awards orders and medals of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic and grants highest military and diplomatic ranks, honorary and other rank and titles.
The President grants amnesty.
The highest legislative organ in the NKR is the National Assembly elected for a five-year term.
The National Assembly consists of 33 members. 11 deputies are elected with the majority election system, 22 deputies - with the proportional representation system. The National Assembly consists of the Chairman, Deputy Chairman, deputies and standing committees. Deputies make up factions and groups.
The sitting NKR parliament comprises 7 standing committees and 5 parliamentary factions: They are respectively:
- on foreign affairs
- on industry and industrial infrastructures
- on finance, budget and economic management issues
- on legal and state affairs
- on social and healthcare issues
- on defense, security and legalism issues
- on issues of science, education culture, youth and sportsaffairs
- "Dashnaktsutyun" -(Armenian Revolutionary Federation)
Regular sessions of the National Assembly are convened twice a year: in September-December and February-June. Sessions are held through convocations, at least once a month. As a rule, regular meetings of the National Assembly take place on Wednesdays and are open to public.
Extraordinary session or meetings of the National Assembly are convened by the Chairman of the National Assembly upon the inititation of the President of the Republic, at least one-third of the total number of National Assembly deputies or the Cabinet with the agenda and within the timeframe set by the initiator.
The National Assembly adopts laws, enactments, resolutions, appeals and statements.
The NKR parliament on the proposal of the President:
- announces amnesty;
- ratifies,withholds or suspends ther intenational agreements of the NKR;
- adopts resolutions on declaring war or proclaiming peace.
Artsakh Republic Government is a collegial body of the executive power supporting the implementation of the powers of the Republic's President.
The Government is composed of the state minister and ministers.
Meetings of the Government are convened and chaired by the Republic's President. Upon the authorization of the President, the state minister may chair the meetings of the Government.
Decisions of the Government are signed by the Republic's President.
The Government is competent to adopt subordinate legislations.
The current Government has the following structure:
• Minister of State
• Ministry of Healthcare
• Ministry of Justice
• Ministry of Foreign Affairs
• Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs and Resettlement
• Ministry of Nature Protection and Natural Resources
• Ministry of Agriculture
• Ministry of Economy and Industrial Infrastructures
• Ministry of Education, Science and Sports
• Ministry of Culture, Youth Affairs and Tourism
• Ministry of Defense
• Ministry of Urban Planning
• Ministry of Finance.
The following state administrative bodies are functioning in Artsakh Republic too:
• National Security Service
• State Service of Emergency Situations.
In accordance with the NKR Constitution and laws Judicial Power in the Nagorno Karabagh Republic is exercised by courts. The establishment of extraordinary courts is prohibited in the Republic.
Courts in NKR are independent. The judges are appointed for life and hold office until the age of 65. Powers of a judge are suspended only by the Constitution and in accordance with the cases and procedures stipulated by law.
The judicial system of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic has the following structure:
- Supreme Court
- The Court of Appeal
- The First Instance Court of general jurisdiction
The Supreme Court is the highest judicial body of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic. It ensures constitutional justice and within the scopes of its responsibility reviews decisions of the lower level courts. The Supreme Court ensures supremacy of the Constitution and equal application of law.